Analysis of the Visual
Analysis of the Visual Aesthetic Mode ofZhu Ming's Art Museum from its Spatial Layout
School of Arts
Nanjing, China 210000
Abstract—The article aims to explore how artistic work can be presented inthe context of museums under the visual arts. How does the recipient touch thework of art, and get close to the mystery of art? Recipients can "sightsee","stare", and "appreciate" the art works through the spacecreated by the museum to open the mystery of art. The author believes that the spatialarrangement of Zhu Ming's Art Museum construct the aesthetic way of"up-and-downobservation", and "sightseeing" and inthe way of "up-and-down", "sightseeing",and "staring", the artistic recipients can approach the works of artand understand the art, to understand the author's humanistic feelings, such asthe culture of "etiquette" reflected in the "the man'sworld" series sculpture. Ultimately, the art recipients and art works canform interaction, so art culture can be spread and carried forward.
Keywords—Zhu Ming's Art Museum; space;visual aesthetic mode
After the new cultural movement, ZongBaihua pays attention to the up-and-down observation of the world by ancientChinese again, and he believes that the fundamental difference between Chineseart and Western art is that Chinese have been used the aesthetic care mode ofup-and-down observation and combination of far and near. The source of formation of this unique aesthetic mode is from theup-and-down observation of world clearly proposed in the book "Book ofChanges". That is, "looking up is to observe the sky, and lookingdown is to observe the land".
Zong Bing says in "preface ofpainting landscape": "Kunlun Mountain is so big while our eyes aresmall, so if we look at it closely, we can't know what it is like; if we lookat it at a distance, we can see its profile." That is to say, the furtherthe distance between you can the objective, the smaller you can see". “Weobserve the soul of the mountains and water by eyes and then comprehend it, sowe can get the principle. Therefore, if the the picture is well painted, whatwe see and what the painter think should be the same” When he grows old andcan't travel faraway, he signs: “when old and disease comes together, I'mafraid that I can't see all the famous mountains, so I should calm down to beenlightened by observing the pictures on the bed.” "All the places wherehe traveled have been painted into picture and hung on the wall. He says toothers: I play the guqin to make the sound echo between mountains."
"Mind travel" here of Zong Bingis lying on the bed to watch, which make the later generations compose thepictures by using scroll-type open mode for a long time when painting, andpeople also adopt the mode of "moving" to enjoy the picture, so theeyes of viewers move horizontally with the picture. Of course, when we make the"sightseeing", there are usually several kinds of viewing modes:horizontal watching, far back watching, upward watching, staring (gaze), andwatching as looking at scroll painting and so on.
So can the viewer be able to walk in adifferent space when he or she is watching a work? This article discusses howthe space design allows the recipient to get the aesthetic experience. Theauthor takes the spatial layout of Zhu Ming's Art Museum as an example to studythe visual aesthetic mode of its spatial layout.
The author thinks that the space of ZhuMing's Art Museum mainly forms the visual aesthetic way of"up-and-down" and "sightseeing". In both visual ways, therecipient can interact with the artwork and obtain the aesthetic feeling, tounderstand the artwork itself.
II.      Analyze Zhu Ming's Art Museumby Way of "up and down"
Why this the article takes Zhu Ming's ArtMuseum as an example to study the visual aesthetic way? How does the artist ZhuMing let the recipient interact with the artwork in the context of art museum?
Artists are engaged in creation andcollectors collect the works of artists. Zhu Ming is an artist who wants tocollect his own works. In eighty-five year of the Republic of China, Zhu Mingbegan to build a cultural art park, and the name of this park located inJinshan is changed to [Zhu Ming's Art Museum] in September in eighty-eightyear. This venue accommodates almost all of thesculptures and paintings of Zhu Ming.
"The design here is most thorough,each grass and tree, materials, patterns, style, the size are my ideas ... ...”If his creation can be regarded as first-class work, Zhu Ming's Art Museum ishis largest public space work.
Zhu Ming put each of his unique works inthe context of art museum, providing the audience with a different kind ofvisual space as shown in "Fig. 1".
The map of Zhu Ming’s Art Museum
Fig. 1.   The map of Zhu Ming’s ArtMuseum.
Zhu Ming's Art Museum is located in thehillside of Jinshan District in Xinbei, Taiwan, near the mountain and by theriver; Mr. Zhu Ming originally aimed to solve the problem of storage of largeworks, and later he found inspiration from nature, so he decided to build agarden to show his life masterpiece, and let the artist to play theircreativity; according to different landscapes, Mr. Zhu Ming plan out theservice center, first exhibition room, conference room, art performance area,art exchange area, Zhu Jun District, dabbling area, Tai Chi Square, art museum,human square, mother stele, swan pool, art gallery, and sports square.
Zhu Ming's Art Museum provides recipientswith the space to integrate with the works, and the recipient can achieve thespread of art by way of "sightseeing". Zhu Ming's Art Museum as alarge space sculpture, itself is a work. At the same time, this work can beused to display, collection, and exhibit. This is a special case in the currentChinese art museums, so the author uses it as a researchobject.
Fig. 2.   Zhu Ming's Art Museum.
Fig. 3.   Zhu Ming's Art Museum.
Taking the entrance of Zhu Ming's ArtMuseum as the starting point as shown in "Fig. 2" and "Fig.3", it's hard for us to imagine that this is the gate of the internationalZhu Ming's Art Museum when facing this simplefront door, and we may be surprised: Do I go wrong?
Don't do as the author do since that twoordinary restaurants doors will soon take you into the secret areawhere the "seeds of art" bloom flowers. When we opened thedoor, and purchase the tickets, the journey of "sightseeing" thesecret area is about to start. After entering the door, there is nothing novelbefore our eyes. What we can see is only the downward step in the corner, andthen the fantasy trip of Edenso begins. This arrangement make people can't helpthinking of the famous quotation in "the Pipa player": "Onlyafter our repeated calls did she appear; her face still half hidden behind apipa lute." We continue to move on with doubt. After walking throughdozens of steps, what comes into view are the pasteup full of fashionablebreath. Zhu Ming uses a variety of media, including colorful canvas,translucent plain cloth, opaque and monochrome fabric and so on to makeoverlapping collage, resulting in different space level as shown in"Fig. 4", "Fig. 5" and "Fig. 6". My eyes are walking with different spaces.
Fig. 4.   The collage on both sides.
Fig. 5.   The collage on both sides.
Fig. 6.   The collage on both sides.
Traveling across the corridor, the doorof the new world is opened for the tourists. The left is a spacious exhibitionhall in the attic layout, and in the bottom of the glass frame collectedsculptures of rural series of Zhu Ming. Then we walk up the stairs to seecloset in various shapes, where there are the works of young artists’ displayof different stages. Standing above the attic, the big sculpture "worktogether" can be overlooked. The viewing effect of overlooking can makepeople, cattle, and car maintain a balance in join forces, revealing theconnotation of the theme "work together" with the vision.
Out of the exhibition hall are theparatroopers hanging in the sky, which attract the viewers to look up. Thisgroup of people belongs to the "the series of the man’s world - thearmy" in "Fig. 7" and "Fig. 8".Lovely paratroopers land in the building of the Taiwan Art Museum, like thepilots who are ready to rescue the trapped victims. Every audience entering themuseum is bound to be attracted by this work, why? First of all, the positionwhere it is placed determines. Secondly, the perspective provided by the authorfor viewers is unusual. As the previous "sightseeing" in Zhu Ming'sArt Museum, after the aimless "sightseeing", the high placementimmediately focus the dissociative eyes of the visitors on the flying men insky, namely "gaze." "The core of the 'e;xhibition poetics' isthat the unique intellectual property rights and power relationship in theexhibition ceremonies are quietly placed, which is the same in departmentstores and museums.”So in the Zhu Ming's Art Museum, the cultural knowledge of airborne troops isalso placed into the hearts of the audience in this way. In the tour, theaudience will look up at the mid-air sculpture, stare at the still gesture of flyingmen, and the spirit of paratroopers emerges in the brain.
Fig. 7.   Works of man's world series —the army.
Fig. 8.   Works of man's world series —the army.
One chapter in the famous book "seeor not see — visual education in the era of picture-reading" specificallycontrast the charm of "sightseeing" and "gaze". It says: "thevision of gaze is a vision with strong dominant and offensive. From theperspective of civilization, the vision of gaze is constructed and consolidatedby Western modern rationalism, which clearly embodies the arbitrary anddictatorial domination of human subject to the natural space. There is no focusin sightseeing, so sightseeing means equality, which is the great wisdom ofChinese culture in processing the relationship with nature. It is obvious that the flying men who are placed highly can't achieve equaleffect of other sculptures in the museum in the space position. Such differencein vision will inevitably make the audience use different viewing patterns. Sowhy do we think this looking up is "gaze"? The premise is that theprevious watch of the audience is "sightseeing", so their eyes aremoving. In the "lure" of bright yellow, the people's eyes aresuccessfully brought to the flying men. Therefore, the success of this piece ofwork is its position and the use of color.
The perspective of looking up breaks theviewing patterns of original flashing sightseeing, so the audience's eyes werefocused on the mid-air paratroops. Passing the sculpture of flying men in theair, we come to the open space inside the museum, where the sculpture groupslead the audience step by step into the deepest as tour guides.
There are passers-by in "the man'sworld" on both sides of the road at any time.They are silent, and teachus to combine work and rest only by their behavior and teach us to remember toopen the umbrella in the hot sun. The soldiers who hold the wounded have rapidpace, so that we seems to hear their breath, but this voice is so calm.Unconsciously we come to the "Tai Chi" square with the soldiers, andTai Chi people are playing Tai Chi. Although we have noidea about what they are doing, we still cannot help following their movementsto put the same shape, and then we communicate with each other.
When walking in the spaces, each audiencehas the mood of staying here because each person here can find their ownposition. In the "sightseeing", they turn into a sculpture of thelittle girl snuggling in the arms of her mother, watching the clouds in sky andthe spectacularity of returning navy after sailing in the distant sunglow withthe mother, and listening to her mother to tell her short story asshown in "Fig. 9" and "Fig. 10".The museum creates lovely and funny people to the audience, and they are allgathered here. Even the scientists who have always been regarded as seriouspeople become cute. The role, identity, status, and political position havefled into the dirt, hidden in the bushes, and even breath sounds becomecautious. The childhood that have been forgotten by us also resurges, holdingby the flying men to soar between heaven and earth, and falls in a group ofchildren playing the marbles. Then we pick up the discarded "glass ball"one by one to find the source of dreams. Humanity return to us here, and everyindividual here naturally generates moss that naturally fall off with thechanges in time, which is as ordinary as every flesh that have to experiencethe birth and death.
Fig. 9.   Works of man's world series
Fig. 10. Works of man's world series
III.      Analyze the "Ceremony" in Series of Sculpture "the Man'sWorld" with the Visual Way of "Sightseeing"
A.  Introduction to the Seriesof Sculpture "the Man's World"
In 1981, he has been over forty years oldand in middle age. He has enjoyed a reputation in Tai Wan, Hong Kong and otherAsian regions. However, his heart cannot calm the upward momentum, so he hopesto get to a higher level. The United States is his goal. The United States asthe important place for modern art always attracts him. Then he traveled acrossthe ocean to the United Kingdom, living a difficult creative life to create thelifelike series of the man's world. During the period in the United States, ZhuMing suffered a lot of difficulties from both the material and spirit. When hearrived in New York, he lives in the dormitory room for Taiwan students withthe help of friends, but in accordance with the provisions, a person can only stayfor three days. However, what to do after three days? Fortunately, the studenthas five classmates who can still help Zhu Ming stay. In this short buffer, ZhuMing found the place to stay. In consideration of "cheapness", ZhuMing had to choose the darktown outside New York, but he found problems afterstay. First of all, apartments in New York are not allowed to do sculpturecreation and no wood can be bought in New York. Zhu Ming fell into the situation of no place and no material at that moment.Nevertheless, for "this important time", Zhu Ming struggled throughthe difficulties and the express the man's world into the works.
Qiu Xixun had lived with Zhu Ming for awhile, and he can feel the "spiritual suffering" of Zhu Ming becauseBrooklyn district is a mixed place, with "robbery" as commonplace.Zhu Ming got through in such a difficult environment. AsZhu Ming personally think that the series of works "the man's world"is the expression of sample of the diversity of the world as well as theportrayal of varied people in the life course. The loveliest place in the worldlies in the transcendence of self-spiritual and attachment for the world. Theseries of "the man's world" is interspersed with the image of thepresent and the past. From plain and honest old woman to fashionable moderngirl, all give out the temperament of life.
B.  "Etiquette" inthe Series of Sculpture "the Man's World"
(“The man's world” series works aredivided into: various aspects of the man's world, the material and dialogue,new attitude to life, human series of prisoners. The materials of works includewood, stone, pottery, porcelain, copper, sponge over copper, and stainlesssteel and so on. Various aspects of the man's world taking the colorful worldas the subject describe the diverse forms in the world; the material anddialogue uses sponge over copper, stainless steel, and stone to create works,which are mainly exaggerated and distortional figures; new attitude to lifepresents the current world by showing public life and fashionable girls.)
The traditional Chinese character of"etiquette" is "禮". Origin of Chinese Characters says: "etiquette is likeshoe, so we should behave according to etiquette in order to pray for good luck." Originally, it means holding ceremony to worship the godfor good luck. “禮” is an associative compound derived from "示" and "豊". "豊" is derivedfrom bean-like pictographs, which refers to the utensil used for worshipceremony. It is called ceremony if it is used for worship. "示" is also anassociat